Autonomous Ship Technology Symposium 2017
 
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1078 GZ Amsterdam,
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2017 Conference Programme

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Day 1

Tuesday 6 June

09:00 - 12:30 - Keynote Presentations

Moderator
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG, UK

09:00 - Autonomous shipping – not on its own
Ringo Lakeman, senior policy adviser, Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, NETHERLANDS
The presentation will discuss the advantages of an international framework to regulate and accommodate autonomous shipping. It will outline the process and status of initiatives to put the subject on the agenda of the IMO, including the efforts undertaken by the Netherlands in this respect. We will also discuss some aspects/elements that may be subject to scrutiny by the IMO for the development of such a framework. It is important for the international maritime community to work together in setting a harmonised framework to facilitate this phenomenon and make it a success.

09:25 - Redefining the shipping business with intelligent solutions
Oskar Levander, VP innovation, Rolls-Royce, FINLAND
Ship intelligence, including remote and autonomous solutions, will transform the entire marine business. The operational profile of ships will change as more tasks and functions become controlled from shore centres. The emergence of new digital marketplaces will disrupt the existing cargo transport markets, and remote and autonomous solutions will enable entirely new ship designs and concepts for improved economic performance. The economic model for remote and autonomous operation offers highly attractive opportunities for ship operators to reduce cost and increase revenue. This presentation will demonstrate what they should invest in today to ensure that their ships are competitive tomorrow.

09:50 - The DARPA and Leidos ACTUV Sea Hunter and maritime autonomy
Dr Timothy Barton, maritime chief engineer, Leidos, USA
Leidos and US DARPA have partnered on the Anti-Submarine Warfare Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) programme to design and build the medium displacement unmanned surface vessel (MDUSV) named the Sea Hunter. This presentation will provide a brief overview and status update on: the programme and vessel; maritime autonomy, collaborative team autonomy and architecture considerations; communications and cybersecurity considerations. Since last year’s presentation, Sea Hunter has been undergoing successful sea trials, and the team has matured a variety of technologies that will allow government and industry to realise the desired mission cost and risk benefits of a long-endurance MDUSV.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - DBSy – addressing cyber challenges to autonomous ship technology
Paul Irwin, principal consultant, QinetiQ, UK
The cyber-enabled technologies embedded in safety-critical marine systems underpin autonomous shipping capabilities. However, complex maritime platforms present a challenging environment in which to identify cyber vulnerabilities and their potential impact on ship operations. Unfortunately, engineering diagrams can impede security understanding by making it difficult to determine where information needs to flow, what information must be protected, and from whom. This paper explores the application of the QinetiQ Domain Based Security approach to a practical example, and explains how its methodology and graphical notation provide a clear security-focused model that allows flexible but more robust management of cyber risk.

11:25 - ABB – holistic view on autonomous shipping
Dr Kalevi Tervo, global programme manager, ABB Marine, FINLAND
So far, most of the focus in autonomous ships has been on navigation and operation. However, in diesel mechanical vessels, most people on board do not operate the ship, but instead use a significant amount of time to perform various maintenance actions. ABB looks at autonomous shipping from a holistic point of view, including increasing the level of autonomy in operation, building reliable and fault-tolerant electrical powertrain, and developing new digital services to benefit from autonomy. This presentation will introduce some of ABB's most recent results and roadmap for building a reliable and autonomous ship.

11:50 - Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative – intermediate results and way forward
Markus Laurinen, R&D project manager - remote & autonomous operations, Rolls-Royce Marine, FINLAND
Presentation of key results of sensor testing, an insight into the development of the vessel control system (Autonomous Navigation System and Connectivity Platform) and an update on the final plans of AAWA for 2017.

12:15 - Q&A

12:30 - 13:30 - Lunch

13:30 - 16:20 - Liability and Legal Issues

Moderator
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG, UK

13:30 - Strict or negligence-based liability for autonomous ships?
Prof Erik Røsæg, professor, Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law, NORWAY
In maritime law, liability usually requires negligence of a crew member. Strict liability is the exception. But how is this in respect of autonomous ships, where there are no crew members (if the ship is remote controlled)? And does it mean that technical errors and shortcomings would not lead to liability? The paper examines the major theories of strict liability, international conventions and some examples of national law in order to establish whether the basis for liability is strict or ought to be strict.

13:55 - Legal issues with regard to unmanned systems and GNSS
Helen Tung, law consultant, University of Greenwich, AUSTRALIA
In the booming industry of unmanned maritime vessels, discussions on legal issues, particularly in relation to potential liabilities, have become prominent. In drawing the two subject areas of unmanned maritime vessels and GNSS together, the seminar will provide an opportunity to discuss the latest outlook from the UK and EU perspective, and touching on activities in Japan.

14:20 - Unmanned ships – legal and regulatory challenges
Nick Burgess, partner, BDM Law LLP, UK
The presentation will examine how current international regulations deal with unmanned ships, including the changes required to SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW and COLREGS. It will also discuss the potential impact of unmanned ships on carriers' duties to cargo under the Hague/Hague Visby/Hamburg Rules, the potential impact of unmanned ships on the carriers' right to limit their liability, plus cyber piracy and threats and whether further regulation is required to deal with this.

14:45 - Q&A

15:00 - 15:30 - Break

15:30 - Case studies and legal issues of autonomous shipping in Japan
Ayako Umeda, patent attorney, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, JAPAN
Interest in autonomous shipping has been growing in Japan as autonomous automobiles and aerial drones are being realised and accepted into society. In fact, some unmanned small marine vessels have appeared in the field of underwater survey operations. Tokyo University of Marine Science And Technology (TUMSAT) has developed a semi-autonomous ship that is operated remotely using long-range wi-fi and can autonomously operate under conditions of wireless link disconnect. We will present case studies and legal issues of autonomous ship operation in Japan, including discussions held between TUMSAT and government authorities relating to the establishment of laws and regulations.

15:55 - Unmanned ships – legal liabilities and considerations for manufacturers/operators
Jonathan Goulding, associate and mariner, Holman Fenwick Willan, UK
The use and development of maritime autonomous systems (MAS) is increasing rapidly while the legal framework is being left behind. Notwithstanding the work carried out internationally and by organisations such as the UK MAS Regulatory Working Group to develop codes of conduct and best industry practice, until there is a statutory definition for MAS that is adopted into domestic law and by international conventions, there will continue to be ambiguity as to the status of these vehicles and confusion about the correct application of maritime law. This paper highlights some of the legal issues that manufacturers and operators face.

16:20 - 17:30 - Panel Discussion
Identifying the challenges and how to overcome them. The technology and how it needs to advance, how and why operators need to adopt, plus an overview of the path towards autonomous vessels.
Markus Laurinen, R&D project manager - remote & autonomous operations, Rolls-Royce Marine, FINLAND
P Michael A Rodey, innovation strategy manager, Maersk, DENMARK
Gijsbert de Jong, director offshore service vessels and tugs, Bureau Veritas, NETHERLANDS
Hans-Christoph Burmeister, group manager - sea traffic and nautical solutions, Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services CML, GERMANY
Gert-Jan Panken, vice president of maritime applications, Inmarsat, NETHERLANDS


Moderator:
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG

Day 2

Wednesday 7 June

09:00 - 12:55 - Navigation and Collision Avoidance

09:00 - Reactive collision avoidance for unmanned surface craft
Dr Henry Robinson, technical director, H Scientific Ltd, UK
This presentation addresses the problem of reactive collision avoidance for USVs, and also offers some solutions. In a complex and crowded environment, the problems of obstacle detection, classification, location, tracking and avoidance are non-trivial. The picture is even more complex when COLREGS are taken into account. We have developed algorithms that can perform some of these tasks; we also present a standardised interface that may be used to allow any autopilot to accept a connection to a third-party collision avoidance system. The standard interface has been tested at sea, with good results.

09:25 - The value of dynamic positioning systems for autonomous ships
Mark Carter, business manager, Sonardyne International, UK
The development of future vessel navigation system capability is moving towards higher levels of automation and the enabling of remote access for troubleshooting, support and decision-making activities. This paper explains how future systems technology is extracting additional value for existing vessel navigation and DP sensors such as GNSS and acoustic positioning systems, Doppler velocity logs, gyros and MRUs. These well-known sensors can be augmented with sense-and-avoid technology and integrated more closely with additional layers of data processing to achieve a higher level of navigation integrity, which is needed to support increased levels of autonomy.

09:50 - Rule-based automation of collision avoidance according to COLREGs
Alexander Ozersky, solutions manager, Transas Ltd, RUSSIA
Traditionally, manoeuvring of a vessel at sea is regulated by Articles of the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). An automatic system that allows manoeuvring according to COLREGs has been developed, considering surrounding vessels and depth data. All articles of the Convention are implemented directly into the algorithm. Manoeuvring solutions are safe, easily validated and understandable by other marine traffic participants. Results of several tests of the algorithm in a simulated environment are provided and compared with those of human operators.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - A high-integrity decision-making system for autonomous operations
Nick Tudor, business director, D-RisQ Ltd, UK
The ASV-led USMOOTH project has progressed from the planning stage to the implementation phase. D-RisQ has produced a safety-critical decision-making system using high-integrity automatic techniques. This makes development of high-integrity systems fast, cheap and able to support both a system safety case and a security case. The presentation will show what has been achieved in the system and software development, why a safety case can be easily supported from the software development, the capabilities of the Last Response Engine and the next steps including improving existing capabilities.

11:25 - COLREGs-compliant collision avoidance for autonomous systems
David Motson, system design authority, Atlas Elektronik UK, UK
Compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs) is essential for the safe operation of autonomous vessels. This paper presents an approach and results of investigations into the effectiveness of autonomous behaviours assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. When results are taken into the Human Interface, a comparison between theory and reality can be made to better quantify the Human Factor delta that will inevitably impact on both effectiveness and risk of a given approach. The outcome of the investigations will inform the COLREGs-compliant behaviour that will be demonstrated on AEUK-owned assets at sea

11:50 - Advanced sensing environment for obstacle avoidance on board unmanned surface vehicles
Denis Gagneux, department manager, Sirehna - DCNS Research, FRANCE
A sense-and-avoid obstacle system on board unmanned surface vehicles contributes to the safety of navigation. Performances of these systems are directly connected to the sensor’s technologies and data processing. Here, we present functions, architecture and sea trials of an advanced sensing environment that is composed of heterogeneous technologies: infrared cameras, lidar and radar. This solution also includes data processing algorithms to extract raw data from sensors and to merge plots. The system increases detection capacities including small object, especially in the short-range area.

12:15 - Autonomous COLREG-compliant navigation: what next?
Dr Howard Tripp, autonomous systems R&D lead, ASV Global, UK
Over the last two years ASV Global has developed a real-time autonomous COLREG navigation system for high-speed power boats, proved through thousands of hours of simulation and hundreds on the water. The system uses multiple sensor modalities and a hierarchical architecture to iteratively reduce risk and safely plan routes, paths and trajectories. From inception, the system has been designed in a flexible and extensible manner, so now is the ideal time to start to explore research options to transition it to larger ships, tailoring for specific applications or integration with bridge and operator decision-making systems.

12:40 - Q&A

12:55 - 13:55 - Lunch

13:55 - 17:45 - Best Practices

13:55 - A classification perspective on autonomous ships
Gijsbert de Jong, director offshore service vessels and tugs, Bureau Veritas, NETHERLANDS
The marine and offshore industry is increasingly deploying technical innovation to enhance safety, performance and efficiency. In today’s connected world, continuous remote access, monitoring and control of assets and systems has become feasible, and it is starting to make sense to explore the possibilities of unmanned and autonomous ships. This, however, requires a paradigm shift in the regulatory framework developed around manned ships. In response to this challenge, international classification society Bureau Veritas is developing guidelines for risk and technology assessment of unmanned ships, as well as functionality and reliability recommendations for autonomous systems, which also address software and cybersecurity.

14:20 - Unmanned surface vehicles for cost-saving maritime data acquisition
Vegard Evjen Hovstein, CEO, Maritime Robotics AS, NORWAY
As autonomous shipping garners more attention, smaller unmanned surface vehicles (USV) are already being used in commercial applications. USVs are usually in the 1-10m size, and perform particularly well doing repetitive actions in 24/7 operations. Maritime Robotics has been developing USVs for 10 years, and will present how the market is now adapting USVs in civilian applications within geophysical exploration and bathymetry. The presentation will discuss the right level of automation for these applications, and also explain how USVs will establish important technical and legislative experiences that bigger autonomous ships will benefit from.

14:45 - Autonomous ship developments in the NFAS
Ørnulf Jan Rødseth, general manager, Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships/SINTEF Ocean, NORWAY
Concept studies done so far indicate that there are no major obstacles for the realisation of a truly unmanned and autonomous ship, but that there are several knowledge gaps that need to be filled before any ships can be realised. These conclusions have initiated a number of new autonomous ship initiatives, and this presentation will go through the knowledge gaps and how these are addressed in Norway. This includes public initiatives like the new test area near Trondheim and the Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships, as well as the main objectives of the currently running research projects.

15:10 - The mariner in the era of autonomous ships
Prof John Cross, professor, Marine Institute of Memorial University, CANADA
The development of autonomous ships is taking place rapidly as technology and regulations allow. However, the mariner is not changing as quickly and in fact the required skill sets are not even defined at this time. This presentation will examine the skills for the different phases of autonomous development and how current mariners may be able to progress and train to fill the new roles. We will also examine the current skills as defined by the IMO and what can be eliminated as well as what must be added.

15:35 - Q&A

15:50 - 16:20 - Break

16:20 - The roadmap for autonomous shipping
Päivi Haikkola, ecosystem leader, DIMECC, FINLAND
What are the steps required for commercial autonomous shipping? The Autonomous Shipping Alliance was created by major companies in the shipping industry. The partners are jointly working to find the roadmap towards unmanned vessels. We will present the roadmap, the functions and systems needed to realise autonomous traffic.

16:45 - The Norwegian Maritime Authority's responsibilities towards new innovation
Svein David Medhaug, project manager, The Norwegian Maritime Authority, NORWAY
Norway has taken a leading role and chosen a forward-leaning approach with regard to new technology. Automation, autonomous and remote technology are controversial concepts with enormous consequences for the operation, economy and safety of shipping. Therefore the Norwegian Maritime Authority sees benefits and challenges in the autonomous segment. Norway, with its wide variety of expertise within the maritime cluster, has to adjust rapidly and prepare for new technology. At the same time, as an administration we have great responsibility with regard to safety, management and crew relations. Hopefully Norwegian innovation can promote a more sustainable, safer and cleaner industry.

17:10 - Improving remote operator situational awareness in over-the-horizon operations
Christopher Bissec, unmanned system engineer, ASV Global, UK
Up until now, operation of USVs over the horizon has been restricted by safety factors (the requirement to keep a man in the loop) as well as technical limitations due to the constraints posed by the vehicle size and satellite communication datalink performance. Under the USMOOTH project, ASV Global has developed, built and tested an optimised EO-sensor suite, alongside a domain-specific, ROI-based video compression framework to improve the remote operator’s situational awareness via a low-bandwidth, high-latency communication link. The project has also seen extensive testing in real-life environments to evaluate system performance alongside human factors.

17:35 - Q&A - Conference Close Day 2

Day 3

Thursday 8 June

09:00 - 12:30 - Test and Development of Autonomous Technology

Moderator
John Haynes, managing director, Shock Mitigation Ltd, UK

09:00 - Interaction between autonomous ships and small manned craft
Dr Thomas Porathe, professor, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NORWAY
The interaction between autonomous ships and large SOLAS ships can probably be solved by route exchange and coordination in a way that has been, and is currently, studied in projects like MONALISA, Ship Traffic Management (STM) and SESAME Strait. However, a large unknown remains in how to deal with the interaction between small non-SOLAS vessels like leisure craft, coastal fishing and, for example, kayaks in inshore areas. Possible solutions will be discussed.

09:25 - Hrönn: an unmanned, light-duty, offshore utility ship
Brett Phaneuf, managing director, Automated Ships Ltd, UK
Automated Ships Ltd and Kongsberg Maritime have signed a memorandum of understanding to build the world’s first unmanned, fully automated vessel for offshore operations. In January 2017, Automated Ships Ltd will contract the Hrönn, which will be designed and built in Norway in cooperation with Kongsberg. Sea trials will take place in Norway’s newly designated automated vessel testbed in the Trondheim fjord, and will be conducted under the auspices of DNV GL and the Norwegian Maritime Authority. The Hrönn will ultimately be classed and flagged.

09:50 - Naval architecture considerations for the design of USVs
Iñigo Echenique, manager, chief researcher, Seadrone, SPAIN
The technical requirements for a vessel to be unmanned have an influence on its naval architecture and engineering. Aspects including the allowance for higher accelerations on the three axes, greater endurance and range, different volume requirements, as well as the possibility of taking higher safety risks under operation, lead to a new field in naval design. Many of the first-generation USVs of a certain size have been based on adapted common boats or ships. The presentation is a review of the naval architecture and possibilities for the concept vessel design in this new field, including simple and innovative areas.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - An open-source framework for testing and verification
Linus Aldebjer, product manager, SSPA Sweden AB, SWEDEN
The development of smart functions for shipping is revolutionising the industry. The trend is to use software to increase the efficiency, safety and environmental aspects of ships. Testing and verification have always been important to the shipping industry, and have been the business of SSPA since its foundation in 1942. We are now taking testing and verification into this new era by developing an open-source framework for testing and verification of these new smart functions. This paper will present the framework and show how it is used in the development of new functions for autonomous ships.

11:25 - Fundamental research approach to autonomous ship development in the Netherlands
Klaas Visser, assistant professor Marine Engineering, Rear Admiral (retired), Delft University of Technology, NETHERLANDS
Autonomous shipping has established a solid position on the Dutch development radar. Together with its industrial and governmental partners, the Department of Maritime and Transport Technology of Delft University of Technology has initiated fundamental research to solve scientific issues that will clarify how autonomous smart shipping can be realised. This research extends to fundamental new ship design methods, autonomous reconfigurations, full redundant propulsion systems and smart, cooperative, autonomous navigation systems. The speaker will present the highlights of this research and elaborate on Full Scale Autonomous Maritime Demonstrator plans.

11:50 - Autonomous USVs for cooperative harbour defence
Carl Conti, technical director, Spatial Integrated Systems Inc, USA
SIS will present the results from the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Swarm II USV event conducted on the Chesapeake Bay in September 2016. Four USVs operating inside a simulated harbour environment worked cooperatively to autonomously detect and intercept intruders that entered the harbour. Upon intercept, one of the USVs employed an electro-optical sensor with target recognition that allowed for the automated classification of the intruder as either friendly or hostile. The USVs then cooperated to maintain a track on any friendly intruders or close trail of any hostiles until relieved by a human.

12:15 - Q&A

12:30 - 13:30 - Lunch

13:30 - 17:00 - Cybersecurity Challenges for Autonomous Ships

13:30 - Trusted information securely brought back to shore
Gert-Jan Panken, vice president of maritime applications, Inmarsat, NETHERLANDS
In an era of remotely operated and fully autonomous vessels it goes without saying that extensive datasets will be generated on board. It is anticipated that a lot of this data will be brought back to shore. In addition to a global, high-speed satellite network to offload this data, it is important to do this securely. Inmarsat’s consolidated cyber approach offers the highest levels of security in our satellite network, the ground stations and terrestrial networks, and extends this to the cyber wellbeing of the vessel. In this presentation Inmarsat will present its vision on cybersecurity on board, which addresses secure connectivity, remote cyber monitoring services and data integrity and sensor authenticity.

13:55 - The ‘cyber-enabled ship’ – what it means for operators and regulators
Tania Berry, senior electrotechnical specialist, Lloyd's Register, UK
Where are the boundaries of the system when ‘off-ship’ support is provided, and what level of assurance is required to ensure this does not introduce a key hazard by utilising this technology? Is the safety of the vessel maintained and does access have an impact on the continued classification of the vessel? What is the impact of ‘off-ship’ support and what role does the human play when the ‘off-ship’ technology is activated? The presentation will address these questions and look at the risks associated with the adoption of this technology.

14:20 - Maritime autonomous systems will demand more from communications solutions
Nicholas Sheppard, communications solution architect, Thales UK Ltd, UK
Modern maritime autonomous systems are challenging the technologies and approaches to information management, distribution and protection. The rapid reconfigurability and integration of smaller, agile autonomous platforms demands communication solutions that are equally adaptable yet robust. These challenges are increased when considering portable operation centres that deploy an infrastructure consisting of high-fidelity sensor systems, traditional RF data links and low-bandwidth, high-latency bearers. This paper looks at approaches that exploit, protect, wrap and manage predominantly COTS communication bearers that provide attack paths through which maritime autonomous systems could be compromised.

14:45 - Q&A

15:00 - 15:30 - Break

15:30 - Cyber-risk assessment: case study for a remotely controlled vessel
Patrick Rossi, maritime cybersecurity service manager, DNV GL, GERMANY
DNV GL was asked to assess cybersecurity risks associated with the concept design of a remote control system that is intended to be applied on an LNG carrier. The scope of the assessment included a range of IT and OT systems relevant to the navigation vessel function, and the applied methodology was based on the focused risk assessment approach as defined in DNVGL-RP-0496. The presentation will explain the assessment approach, different threats and some of the over 100 identified preventive and mitigating barriers to reduce risks for remote navigational systems.

15:55 - Connectivity challenges for autonomous ships
Dr Marko Hoyhtya, senior scientist, project manager, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FINLAND
A critical component of any unmanned and autonomous ship is the wireless communication system supporting efficient and safe operation. This talk highlights connectivity challenges of an autonomous/unmanned ship in different environments, including ports, close to shoreline, deep sea and Arctic area operations. It considers, for example, communicating sensor information from obstacle detection to remote shore control centre in challenging situations; safe and secure communications such as how to manage interference and prevent blocking the critical data flow, hijacking the vessel remotely etc.; satellite and terrestrial communication systems enabling operations. Multiple wireless systems are needed for reliability.

16:20 - Sealing vessels’ electronic control units, according to factory settings
David Barzilai, chairman & co-founder, Karamba Security, ISRAEL
The presentation will discuss preventing cyber-attacks on ships with zero false positives and negligible performance; automatically sealing the ship ECUs according to its factory settings; checking all operations in runtime, blocking droppers and in-memory attacks as they don't comply with the factory settings.

16:45 - Q&A - Conference Summary and Close Final Day

*This program may be subject to change

Day 1

Tuesday 6 June

09:00 - 12:30 - Keynote Presentations

Moderator
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG, UK

09:00 - Autonomous shipping – not on its own
Ringo Lakeman, senior policy adviser, Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, NETHERLANDS
The presentation will discuss the advantages of an international framework to regulate and accommodate autonomous shipping. It will outline the process and status of initiatives to put the subject on the agenda of the IMO, including the efforts undertaken by the Netherlands in this respect. We will also discuss some aspects/elements that may be subject to scrutiny by the IMO for the development of such a framework. It is important for the international maritime community to work together in setting a harmonised framework to facilitate this phenomenon and make it a success.

09:25 - Redefining the shipping business with intelligent solutions
Oskar Levander, VP innovation, Rolls-Royce, FINLAND
Ship intelligence, including remote and autonomous solutions, will transform the entire marine business. The operational profile of ships will change as more tasks and functions become controlled from shore centres. The emergence of new digital marketplaces will disrupt the existing cargo transport markets, and remote and autonomous solutions will enable entirely new ship designs and concepts for improved economic performance. The economic model for remote and autonomous operation offers highly attractive opportunities for ship operators to reduce cost and increase revenue. This presentation will demonstrate what they should invest in today to ensure that their ships are competitive tomorrow.

09:50 - The DARPA and Leidos ACTUV Sea Hunter and maritime autonomy
Dr Timothy Barton, maritime chief engineer, Leidos, USA
Leidos and US DARPA have partnered on the Anti-Submarine Warfare Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) programme to design and build the medium displacement unmanned surface vessel (MDUSV) named the Sea Hunter. This presentation will provide a brief overview and status update on: the programme and vessel; maritime autonomy, collaborative team autonomy and architecture considerations; communications and cybersecurity considerations. Since last year’s presentation, Sea Hunter has been undergoing successful sea trials, and the team has matured a variety of technologies that will allow government and industry to realise the desired mission cost and risk benefits of a long-endurance MDUSV.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - DBSy – addressing cyber challenges to autonomous ship technology
Paul Irwin, principal consultant, QinetiQ, UK
The cyber-enabled technologies embedded in safety-critical marine systems underpin autonomous shipping capabilities. However, complex maritime platforms present a challenging environment in which to identify cyber vulnerabilities and their potential impact on ship operations. Unfortunately, engineering diagrams can impede security understanding by making it difficult to determine where information needs to flow, what information must be protected, and from whom. This paper explores the application of the QinetiQ Domain Based Security approach to a practical example, and explains how its methodology and graphical notation provide a clear security-focused model that allows flexible but more robust management of cyber risk.

11:25 - ABB – holistic view on autonomous shipping
Dr Kalevi Tervo, global programme manager, ABB Marine, FINLAND
So far, most of the focus in autonomous ships has been on navigation and operation. However, in diesel mechanical vessels, most people on board do not operate the ship, but instead use a significant amount of time to perform various maintenance actions. ABB looks at autonomous shipping from a holistic point of view, including increasing the level of autonomy in operation, building reliable and fault-tolerant electrical powertrain, and developing new digital services to benefit from autonomy. This presentation will introduce some of ABB's most recent results and roadmap for building a reliable and autonomous ship.

11:50 - Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative – intermediate results and way forward
Markus Laurinen, R&D project manager - remote & autonomous operations, Rolls-Royce Marine, FINLAND
Presentation of key results of sensor testing, an insight into the development of the vessel control system (Autonomous Navigation System and Connectivity Platform) and an update on the final plans of AAWA for 2017.

12:15 - Q&A

12:30 - 13:30 - Lunch

13:30 - 16:20 - Liability and Legal Issues

Moderator
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG, UK

13:30 - Strict or negligence-based liability for autonomous ships?
Prof Erik Røsæg, professor, Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law, NORWAY
In maritime law, liability usually requires negligence of a crew member. Strict liability is the exception. But how is this in respect of autonomous ships, where there are no crew members (if the ship is remote controlled)? And does it mean that technical errors and shortcomings would not lead to liability? The paper examines the major theories of strict liability, international conventions and some examples of national law in order to establish whether the basis for liability is strict or ought to be strict.

13:55 - Legal issues with regard to unmanned systems and GNSS
Helen Tung, law consultant, University of Greenwich, AUSTRALIA
In the booming industry of unmanned maritime vessels, discussions on legal issues, particularly in relation to potential liabilities, have become prominent. In drawing the two subject areas of unmanned maritime vessels and GNSS together, the seminar will provide an opportunity to discuss the latest outlook from the UK and EU perspective, and touching on activities in Japan.

14:20 - Unmanned ships – legal and regulatory challenges
Nick Burgess, partner, BDM Law LLP, UK
The presentation will examine how current international regulations deal with unmanned ships, including the changes required to SOLAS, MARPOL, STCW and COLREGS. It will also discuss the potential impact of unmanned ships on carriers' duties to cargo under the Hague/Hague Visby/Hamburg Rules, the potential impact of unmanned ships on the carriers' right to limit their liability, plus cyber piracy and threats and whether further regulation is required to deal with this.

14:45 - Q&A

15:00 - 15:30 - Break

15:30 - Case studies and legal issues of autonomous shipping in Japan
Ayako Umeda, patent attorney, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, JAPAN
Interest in autonomous shipping has been growing in Japan as autonomous automobiles and aerial drones are being realised and accepted into society. In fact, some unmanned small marine vessels have appeared in the field of underwater survey operations. Tokyo University of Marine Science And Technology (TUMSAT) has developed a semi-autonomous ship that is operated remotely using long-range wi-fi and can autonomously operate under conditions of wireless link disconnect. We will present case studies and legal issues of autonomous ship operation in Japan, including discussions held between TUMSAT and government authorities relating to the establishment of laws and regulations.

15:55 - Unmanned ships – legal liabilities and considerations for manufacturers/operators
Jonathan Goulding, associate and mariner, Holman Fenwick Willan, UK
The use and development of maritime autonomous systems (MAS) is increasing rapidly while the legal framework is being left behind. Notwithstanding the work carried out internationally and by organisations such as the UK MAS Regulatory Working Group to develop codes of conduct and best industry practice, until there is a statutory definition for MAS that is adopted into domestic law and by international conventions, there will continue to be ambiguity as to the status of these vehicles and confusion about the correct application of maritime law. This paper highlights some of the legal issues that manufacturers and operators face.

16:20 - 17:30 - Panel Discussion
Identifying the challenges and how to overcome them. The technology and how it needs to advance, how and why operators need to adopt, plus an overview of the path towards autonomous vessels.
Markus Laurinen, R&D project manager - remote & autonomous operations, Rolls-Royce Marine, FINLAND
P Michael A Rodey, innovation strategy manager, Maersk, DENMARK
Gijsbert de Jong, director offshore service vessels and tugs, Bureau Veritas, NETHERLANDS
Hans-Christoph Burmeister, group manager - sea traffic and nautical solutions, Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services CML, GERMANY
Gert-Jan Panken, vice president of maritime applications, Inmarsat, NETHERLANDS


Moderator:
James Fanshawe, chairman, UK MASRWG

*This program may be subject to change

Day 2

Wednesday 7 June

09:00 - 12:55 - Navigation and Collision Avoidance

09:00 - Reactive collision avoidance for unmanned surface craft
Dr Henry Robinson, technical director, H Scientific Ltd, UK
This presentation addresses the problem of reactive collision avoidance for USVs, and also offers some solutions. In a complex and crowded environment, the problems of obstacle detection, classification, location, tracking and avoidance are non-trivial. The picture is even more complex when COLREGS are taken into account. We have developed algorithms that can perform some of these tasks; we also present a standardised interface that may be used to allow any autopilot to accept a connection to a third-party collision avoidance system. The standard interface has been tested at sea, with good results.

09:25 - The value of dynamic positioning systems for autonomous ships
Mark Carter, business manager, Sonardyne International, UK
The development of future vessel navigation system capability is moving towards higher levels of automation and the enabling of remote access for troubleshooting, support and decision-making activities. This paper explains how future systems technology is extracting additional value for existing vessel navigation and DP sensors such as GNSS and acoustic positioning systems, Doppler velocity logs, gyros and MRUs. These well-known sensors can be augmented with sense-and-avoid technology and integrated more closely with additional layers of data processing to achieve a higher level of navigation integrity, which is needed to support increased levels of autonomy.

09:50 - Rule-based automation of collision avoidance according to COLREGs
Alexander Ozersky, solutions manager, Transas Ltd, RUSSIA
Traditionally, manoeuvring of a vessel at sea is regulated by Articles of the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972). An automatic system that allows manoeuvring according to COLREGs has been developed, considering surrounding vessels and depth data. All articles of the Convention are implemented directly into the algorithm. Manoeuvring solutions are safe, easily validated and understandable by other marine traffic participants. Results of several tests of the algorithm in a simulated environment are provided and compared with those of human operators.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - A high-integrity decision-making system for autonomous operations
Nick Tudor, business director, D-RisQ Ltd, UK
The ASV-led USMOOTH project has progressed from the planning stage to the implementation phase. D-RisQ has produced a safety-critical decision-making system using high-integrity automatic techniques. This makes development of high-integrity systems fast, cheap and able to support both a system safety case and a security case. The presentation will show what has been achieved in the system and software development, why a safety case can be easily supported from the software development, the capabilities of the Last Response Engine and the next steps including improving existing capabilities.

11:25 - COLREGs-compliant collision avoidance for autonomous systems
David Motson, system design authority, Atlas Elektronik UK, UK
Compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972 (COLREGs) is essential for the safe operation of autonomous vessels. This paper presents an approach and results of investigations into the effectiveness of autonomous behaviours assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. When results are taken into the Human Interface, a comparison between theory and reality can be made to better quantify the Human Factor delta that will inevitably impact on both effectiveness and risk of a given approach. The outcome of the investigations will inform the COLREGs-compliant behaviour that will be demonstrated on AEUK-owned assets at sea

11:50 - Advanced sensing environment for obstacle avoidance on board unmanned surface vehicles
Denis Gagneux, department manager, Sirehna - DCNS Research, FRANCE
A sense-and-avoid obstacle system on board unmanned surface vehicles contributes to the safety of navigation. Performances of these systems are directly connected to the sensor’s technologies and data processing. Here, we present functions, architecture and sea trials of an advanced sensing environment that is composed of heterogeneous technologies: infrared cameras, lidar and radar. This solution also includes data processing algorithms to extract raw data from sensors and to merge plots. The system increases detection capacities including small object, especially in the short-range area.

12:15 - Autonomous COLREG-compliant navigation: what next?
Dr Howard Tripp, autonomous systems R&D lead, ASV Global, UK
Over the last two years ASV Global has developed a real-time autonomous COLREG navigation system for high-speed power boats, proved through thousands of hours of simulation and hundreds on the water. The system uses multiple sensor modalities and a hierarchical architecture to iteratively reduce risk and safely plan routes, paths and trajectories. From inception, the system has been designed in a flexible and extensible manner, so now is the ideal time to start to explore research options to transition it to larger ships, tailoring for specific applications or integration with bridge and operator decision-making systems.

12:40 - Q&A

12:55 - 13:55 - Lunch

13:55 - 17:45 - Best Practices

13:55 - A classification perspective on autonomous ships
Gijsbert de Jong, director offshore service vessels and tugs, Bureau Veritas, NETHERLANDS
The marine and offshore industry is increasingly deploying technical innovation to enhance safety, performance and efficiency. In today’s connected world, continuous remote access, monitoring and control of assets and systems has become feasible, and it is starting to make sense to explore the possibilities of unmanned and autonomous ships. This, however, requires a paradigm shift in the regulatory framework developed around manned ships. In response to this challenge, international classification society Bureau Veritas is developing guidelines for risk and technology assessment of unmanned ships, as well as functionality and reliability recommendations for autonomous systems, which also address software and cybersecurity.

14:20 - Unmanned surface vehicles for cost-saving maritime data acquisition
Vegard Evjen Hovstein, CEO, Maritime Robotics AS, NORWAY
As autonomous shipping garners more attention, smaller unmanned surface vehicles (USV) are already being used in commercial applications. USVs are usually in the 1-10m size, and perform particularly well doing repetitive actions in 24/7 operations. Maritime Robotics has been developing USVs for 10 years, and will present how the market is now adapting USVs in civilian applications within geophysical exploration and bathymetry. The presentation will discuss the right level of automation for these applications, and also explain how USVs will establish important technical and legislative experiences that bigger autonomous ships will benefit from.

14:45 - Autonomous ship developments in the NFAS
Ørnulf Jan Rødseth, general manager, Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships/SINTEF Ocean, NORWAY
Concept studies done so far indicate that there are no major obstacles for the realisation of a truly unmanned and autonomous ship, but that there are several knowledge gaps that need to be filled before any ships can be realised. These conclusions have initiated a number of new autonomous ship initiatives, and this presentation will go through the knowledge gaps and how these are addressed in Norway. This includes public initiatives like the new test area near Trondheim and the Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships, as well as the main objectives of the currently running research projects.

15:10 - The mariner in the era of autonomous ships
Prof John Cross, professor, Marine Institute of Memorial University, CANADA
The development of autonomous ships is taking place rapidly as technology and regulations allow. However, the mariner is not changing as quickly and in fact the required skill sets are not even defined at this time. This presentation will examine the skills for the different phases of autonomous development and how current mariners may be able to progress and train to fill the new roles. We will also examine the current skills as defined by the IMO and what can be eliminated as well as what must be added.

15:35 - Q&A

15:50 - 16:20 - Break

16:20 - The roadmap for autonomous shipping
Päivi Haikkola, ecosystem leader, DIMECC, FINLAND
What are the steps required for commercial autonomous shipping? The Autonomous Shipping Alliance was created by major companies in the shipping industry. The partners are jointly working to find the roadmap towards unmanned vessels. We will present the roadmap, the functions and systems needed to realise autonomous traffic.

16:45 - The Norwegian Maritime Authority's responsibilities towards new innovation
Svein David Medhaug, project manager, The Norwegian Maritime Authority, NORWAY
Norway has taken a leading role and chosen a forward-leaning approach with regard to new technology. Automation, autonomous and remote technology are controversial concepts with enormous consequences for the operation, economy and safety of shipping. Therefore the Norwegian Maritime Authority sees benefits and challenges in the autonomous segment. Norway, with its wide variety of expertise within the maritime cluster, has to adjust rapidly and prepare for new technology. At the same time, as an administration we have great responsibility with regard to safety, management and crew relations. Hopefully Norwegian innovation can promote a more sustainable, safer and cleaner industry.

17:10 - Improving remote operator situational awareness in over-the-horizon operations
Christopher Bissec, unmanned system engineer, ASV Global, UK
Up until now, operation of USVs over the horizon has been restricted by safety factors (the requirement to keep a man in the loop) as well as technical limitations due to the constraints posed by the vehicle size and satellite communication datalink performance. Under the USMOOTH project, ASV Global has developed, built and tested an optimised EO-sensor suite, alongside a domain-specific, ROI-based video compression framework to improve the remote operator’s situational awareness via a low-bandwidth, high-latency communication link. The project has also seen extensive testing in real-life environments to evaluate system performance alongside human factors.

17:35 - Q&A - Conference Close Day 2

*This program may be subject to change

Day 3

Thursday 8 June

09:00 - 12:30 - Test and Development of Autonomous Technology

Moderator
John Haynes, managing director, Shock Mitigation Ltd, UK

09:00 - Interaction between autonomous ships and small manned craft
Dr Thomas Porathe, professor, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NORWAY
The interaction between autonomous ships and large SOLAS ships can probably be solved by route exchange and coordination in a way that has been, and is currently, studied in projects like MONALISA, Ship Traffic Management (STM) and SESAME Strait. However, a large unknown remains in how to deal with the interaction between small non-SOLAS vessels like leisure craft, coastal fishing and, for example, kayaks in inshore areas. Possible solutions will be discussed.

09:25 - Hrönn: an unmanned, light-duty, offshore utility ship
Brett Phaneuf, managing director, Automated Ships Ltd, UK
Automated Ships Ltd and Kongsberg Maritime have signed a memorandum of understanding to build the world’s first unmanned, fully automated vessel for offshore operations. In January 2017, Automated Ships Ltd will contract the Hrönn, which will be designed and built in Norway in cooperation with Kongsberg. Sea trials will take place in Norway’s newly designated automated vessel testbed in the Trondheim fjord, and will be conducted under the auspices of DNV GL and the Norwegian Maritime Authority. The Hrönn will ultimately be classed and flagged.

09:50 - Naval architecture considerations for the design of USVs
Iñigo Echenique, manager, chief researcher, Seadrone, SPAIN
The technical requirements for a vessel to be unmanned have an influence on its naval architecture and engineering. Aspects including the allowance for higher accelerations on the three axes, greater endurance and range, different volume requirements, as well as the possibility of taking higher safety risks under operation, lead to a new field in naval design. Many of the first-generation USVs of a certain size have been based on adapted common boats or ships. The presentation is a review of the naval architecture and possibilities for the concept vessel design in this new field, including simple and innovative areas.

10:15 - Q&A

10:30 - 11:00 - Break

11:00 - An open-source framework for testing and verification
Linus Aldebjer, product manager, SSPA Sweden AB, SWEDEN
The development of smart functions for shipping is revolutionising the industry. The trend is to use software to increase the efficiency, safety and environmental aspects of ships. Testing and verification have always been important to the shipping industry, and have been the business of SSPA since its foundation in 1942. We are now taking testing and verification into this new era by developing an open-source framework for testing and verification of these new smart functions. This paper will present the framework and show how it is used in the development of new functions for autonomous ships.

11:25 - Fundamental research approach to autonomous ship development in the Netherlands
Klaas Visser, assistant professor Marine Engineering, Rear Admiral (retired), Delft University of Technology, NETHERLANDS
Autonomous shipping has established a solid position on the Dutch development radar. Together with its industrial and governmental partners, the Department of Maritime and Transport Technology of Delft University of Technology has initiated fundamental research to solve scientific issues that will clarify how autonomous smart shipping can be realised. This research extends to fundamental new ship design methods, autonomous reconfigurations, full redundant propulsion systems and smart, cooperative, autonomous navigation systems. The speaker will present the highlights of this research and elaborate on Full Scale Autonomous Maritime Demonstrator plans.

11:50 - Autonomous USVs for cooperative harbour defence
Carl Conti, technical director, Spatial Integrated Systems Inc, USA
SIS will present the results from the Office of Naval Research-sponsored Swarm II USV event conducted on the Chesapeake Bay in September 2016. Four USVs operating inside a simulated harbour environment worked cooperatively to autonomously detect and intercept intruders that entered the harbour. Upon intercept, one of the USVs employed an electro-optical sensor with target recognition that allowed for the automated classification of the intruder as either friendly or hostile. The USVs then cooperated to maintain a track on any friendly intruders or close trail of any hostiles until relieved by a human.

12:15 - Q&A

12:30 - 13:30 - Lunch

13:30 - 17:00 - Cybersecurity Challenges for Autonomous Ships

13:30 - Trusted information securely brought back to shore
Gert-Jan Panken, vice president of maritime applications, Inmarsat, NETHERLANDS
In an era of remotely operated and fully autonomous vessels it goes without saying that extensive datasets will be generated on board. It is anticipated that a lot of this data will be brought back to shore. In addition to a global, high-speed satellite network to offload this data, it is important to do this securely. Inmarsat’s consolidated cyber approach offers the highest levels of security in our satellite network, the ground stations and terrestrial networks, and extends this to the cyber wellbeing of the vessel. In this presentation Inmarsat will present its vision on cybersecurity on board, which addresses secure connectivity, remote cyber monitoring services and data integrity and sensor authenticity.

13:55 - The ‘cyber-enabled ship’ – what it means for operators and regulators
Tania Berry, senior electrotechnical specialist, Lloyd's Register, UK
Where are the boundaries of the system when ‘off-ship’ support is provided, and what level of assurance is required to ensure this does not introduce a key hazard by utilising this technology? Is the safety of the vessel maintained and does access have an impact on the continued classification of the vessel? What is the impact of ‘off-ship’ support and what role does the human play when the ‘off-ship’ technology is activated? The presentation will address these questions and look at the risks associated with the adoption of this technology.

14:20 - Maritime autonomous systems will demand more from communications solutions
Nicholas Sheppard, communications solution architect, Thales UK Ltd, UK
Modern maritime autonomous systems are challenging the technologies and approaches to information management, distribution and protection. The rapid reconfigurability and integration of smaller, agile autonomous platforms demands communication solutions that are equally adaptable yet robust. These challenges are increased when considering portable operation centres that deploy an infrastructure consisting of high-fidelity sensor systems, traditional RF data links and low-bandwidth, high-latency bearers. This paper looks at approaches that exploit, protect, wrap and manage predominantly COTS communication bearers that provide attack paths through which maritime autonomous systems could be compromised.

14:45 - Q&A

15:00 - 15:30 - Break

15:30 - Cyber-risk assessment: case study for a remotely controlled vessel
Patrick Rossi, maritime cybersecurity service manager, DNV GL, GERMANY
DNV GL was asked to assess cybersecurity risks associated with the concept design of a remote control system that is intended to be applied on an LNG carrier. The scope of the assessment included a range of IT and OT systems relevant to the navigation vessel function, and the applied methodology was based on the focused risk assessment approach as defined in DNVGL-RP-0496. The presentation will explain the assessment approach, different threats and some of the over 100 identified preventive and mitigating barriers to reduce risks for remote navigational systems.

15:55 - Connectivity challenges for autonomous ships
Dr Marko Hoyhtya, senior scientist, project manager, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FINLAND
A critical component of any unmanned and autonomous ship is the wireless communication system supporting efficient and safe operation. This talk highlights connectivity challenges of an autonomous/unmanned ship in different environments, including ports, close to shoreline, deep sea and Arctic area operations. It considers, for example, communicating sensor information from obstacle detection to remote shore control centre in challenging situations; safe and secure communications such as how to manage interference and prevent blocking the critical data flow, hijacking the vessel remotely etc.; satellite and terrestrial communication systems enabling operations. Multiple wireless systems are needed for reliability.

16:20 - Sealing vessels’ electronic control units, according to factory settings
David Barzilai, chairman & co-founder, Karamba Security, ISRAEL
The presentation will discuss preventing cyber-attacks on ships with zero false positives and negligible performance; automatically sealing the ship ECUs according to its factory settings; checking all operations in runtime, blocking droppers and in-memory attacks as they don't comply with the factory settings.

16:45 - Q&A - Conference Summary and Close Final Day

*This program may be subject to change

 
 
 

Conference Programme:



Click here to view the Programme

 
Topics under discussion:
  • Autonomous navigation technology
  • Automated onboard systems
  • E-navigation
  • Automation software
  • Maritime remote control technology
  • Potential economic benefits
  • Legal implications
  • Environmental impact
  • Maritime regulations
  • Simulation
  • Testing and validation
  • Piracy
  • Cyber security
  • Impact on maritime workforce and human factors
  • Maritime insurance
  • Reliability testing of software and hardware systems
  • Case studies and research projects
  • Remote satellite communications
 
Applications:
  • Container ships
  • Bulk Carriers
  • Tankers
  • Military
  • Ferries and cruise ships
  • Tug and OSV
  • Specialist ships